Week 4: Alterations in the Cardiovascular and Respiratory SystemsCardiovascular and respiratory disorders can quickly become dangerous healthcare matters, and they routinely land among the leading causes of hospital admissions. Disorders in these areas are complicated by the fact that these two systems work so closely as contributors to overall health. APRNs working to form a similarly close partnership with patients must demonstrate not only support and compassion but theexpertise to guide the understanding of diagnoses and treatment plans. This includes an understanding of patient medical backgrounds, relevant characteristics, and other variables that can be factored in their diagnoses and treatments.This week, you examine alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes. You also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, and the impact they have on altered physiology.Learning ObjectivesStudents will:Analyze processes related to cardiovascular and respiratory disordersAnalyze alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processesAnalyze racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioningEvaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiologyLearning ResourcesRequired Readings (click to expand/reduce)McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.Chapter 32: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems; Summary ReviewChapter 33: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function (stop at Dysrhythmias); Summary ReviewChapter 35: Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System; Summary ReviewChapter 36: Alterations of Pulmonary Function (stop at Disorders of the chest wall and pleura); (obstructive pulmonary diseases) (stop at Pulmonary artery hypertension); Summary ReviewNote: The above chapters were first presented in the Week 3 resources. If you read them previously you are encouraged to review them this week.Inamdar, A. A. & Inamdar, A. C. (2016). Heart failure: Diagnosis, management, and utilization, 5(7). doi:10.3390/jcm5070062Note: The above article was first presented in the Week 3 resources. If you read it previously you are encouraged to review it this week.Required Media (click to expand/reduce)Module 2 Assignment: Case Study AnalysisAn understanding of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the fact that these two systems work so closely together. A variety of factors and circumstances that impact the emergence and severity of issues in one system can have a role in the performance of the other.Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond these systems and their capacity to work together. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact.Photo Credit: yodiyim / Adobe StockAn understanding of the symptoms of alterations in cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.To prepare:By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the followingThe cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes result in the patient presenting these symptoms.Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.How these processes interact to affect the patientGroup A (S2/1)Scenario 1: 76-year-old female patient complains of weight gain, shortness of breath, peripheral edema, and abdominal swelling. She has a history of congestive heart failure and admits to not taking her diuretic, as it makes her “have to get up every couple hours to go to the bathroom.” She now must sleep on two pillows in order to get enough air.