Business Negotiations 7 and 8

There are two assignments that will need to be completed below, please complete both assignments listed below.

Assignment 1: Oranges between the USA and Japan

The USA and Japan were in negotiations for a period of ten years, (1977 – 1988) over oranges. The Americans had certain goals that they wanted to accomplish in these negotiations. These goals included; exporting of American oranges in the Japanese market, demand that Japan liberalizes its market, and to eliminate the trade barriers in Japan. The Japanese also had their own goals that they wanted to accomplish in the negotiation process. These included; maintaining its positive image outside Japan, avoiding intervention from GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs), and to avoid sanctions from abroad.

Initially, the Japanese refused to negotiate right away, and started negotiating only when Americans threatened them that they would take the issue to GATT panel.Using Hofstede’s Model of Cultural Dimensions from our textbook, compare and contrast the cultural differences that might influence both parties.

Based on the cultural differences, develop a culturally responsive negotiation strategy for American negotiators to deal with Japanese negotiators.

The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded:

Write between 750 – 1,250 words (approximately 3 – 5 pages) using Microsoft Word in APA style, see example below.

Use font size 12 and 1” margins.

Include cover page and reference page.

At least 80% of your paper must be original content/writing.

No more than 20% of your content/information may come from references.

Use at least three references from outside the course material, one reference must be from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used, but are not counted toward the three reference requirement.

Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) in the paper and list on a reference page in APA style.

References must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost, CNN, online newspapers such as, The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc. Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for academic writing.

Assignment 2: Final Exam

The following exam is a final comprehensive exam, which consists of five essay questions. This exam is designed to test your critical and analytical skills, and your overall understanding of the negotiation process.

Compare and contrast the distributive bargaining and integrative negotiation situation. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and how they affect the negotiation process. (A minimum of 300 words is required for this essay).

Identify and explain the kinds of tactics in negotiation that might be considered as ethically questionable. Why do negotiators use these tactics? What are the motives and consequences of using such tactics? (Be as detailed as possible. A minimum of 300 words is required for this essay).

Discuss the role of mood and emotion in negotiation process, and examine the effects of positive and negative emotions in negotiation. (Be specific, and provide a minimum of 300 words this essay).

Analyze the influence of culture on negotiation from the research perspectives. What are the effects of culture on negotiation outcomes, on the process and information flow, and the effects of culture on negotiator ethics and tactics? (Be specific, and provide a minimum of 300 words).

Evaluate why power is important to negotiators, and how to best deal with negotiators who have more power. (Be detailed, and provide a minimum of 300 words).


Lewicki, R. J., Saunders, D. M., & Barry, B. (2015). Essentials of Negotiation (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill

ISBN: 9780077862466