determining when prison conditions constitute cruel and unusual punishments, law help

What should be the test for determining when prison conditions constitute cruel and unusual punishments? 

Is a “deliberate indifference” standard appropriate? In what case does the Court first discuss this standard? 

Is it unconstitutional to confine an inmate to a four-by-six foot cell? 
Why or why not?

To double-cell an inmate with a chain smoker?  Why or why not? 

To keep cells at 55 degrees? Why or why not? 

Please remember to list your references in Bluebook format. 

Note that your essay answer should contain a minimum of 350 words. 

 
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