1) Discretion in the criminal justice system is described as decisions made affecting the outcome of an incident made by police officers, prosecutors, judges, and other officials. Criminal justice officials decide whether or not or how to enforce certain laws, reduce charges, dismiss charges, award privileges, override parole and many more decisions. Discretion is applied in every step of the criminal justice system. Police discretion is used everyday by policemen involving whether or not to issue someone a citation or arrest someone for committing a crime. Prosecutors use discretion when trying to decide to charge an individual or drop charges depending of evidence. Judicial discretion is applied during court and is applied by setting bail, dismissing charges, or establishing a sentence. All steps of the criminal justice system have to use their best judgement of discretion to complete their job.
2) It is a pretty simple answer why discretion is used and needed throughout the criminal justice system and it is so decisions can be made, and a proper conviction or dismiss will occur. Discretion affects the outcome of an dispute that has occurred. Discretion throughout the criminal justice system is not always used responsibly by the individuals that have been given the opportunity to exercise discretion. Discretion is something that could easily be abused by the people with power allowing the to make irrational decisions. This could cause an issue within the criminal justice system, which may lead to Americans not trusting the criminal justice system.
3)Before professional policing, citizens were responsible for sustaining law and order across their own communities. The start of policing in the United States was very corrupt across the country. In the early 1900s professional policing was beginning to set in place around the United States. During the time of slavery policing had a different standard throughout the United States. The north focused on crimes, while the south police focused on slaves attempting to escape to the north. Over the years policing became more and more advanced along with the technology used by police officers.
4) Forensic science is the collection and analyzation of evidence found at a crime scene used to help solve a case and connect the evidence to the suspect. An example of a crime where forensic science solved a case was in 1978 a man named Carroll Bonnet was stabbed in his hole. The crime scene was processed including the collection of fingerprints. They were unable to identify who the fingerprints belonged to until 2008 when Laura Casey used new technology to run a search of the prints. The results of the prints were given within the day and a match to a man named Jerry Watson. With new evidence the case was able to be reopened and the investigator was able to obtain more evidence such as DNA to have the case be taken to trial which resulted in a conviction of Jerry Watson as the killer.