USE APA style citiation to reply to the following two articles (use two different reference for each)
The Joint Commission (TJC) identified six critical areas of emergency response that make an impact on the safety of patients and staff. They are (1) communication, (2) resources and assets, (3) safety and security, (4) staff responsibilities, (5) utilities management, and (6) patient clinical and support activities (California Hospital Association, 2017).
With regards to communication, the organization maintains documentation of completed and attempted contact with the local, state, tribal, regional, and federal emergency preparedness officials in its service area. It is imperative to establish communication with first responders and community stakeholders during the preparation phase so that during the time of an emergency, the relationship is present. Documentation of protocols is critical to ensure proper handling.
During an emergency response, organizations that plan to provide service during an emergency must describe how the organization will obtain and replenish nonmedical supplies (food, bedding, and other provisions consistent with the organization’s plan to shelter on site) in The Emergency Management Plan. If patients are kept on-site, then the facility must have a plan to maintain supplies and the current inventory. Resources and assets should be monitored continuously and managed and organized beforehand.
On the other hand, regarding safety and security, as part of the Emergency Operations Plan (EOP), the organization prepares for how it will manage security and safety during an emergency. In the EOP specifics on how safety and security will be prioritized and organized, whether it’s an active shooter situation, natural disaster or another type of emergency. Documentation helps educate responsible parties before an event and documentation also provide a record for reference during response and during evaluation.
The Joint Commission. (2017). 8 tips for high-quality hand-offs. Retrieved from
The Joint Commission emphasizes six functional emergency response areas that they expect hospitals to preserve while confronting a disaster. By considering their capabilities in each of these 6 areas, hospitals are using the “all-hazzards” approach to emergency readiness.
- Emergency Communications
- Resources and assets management
- Safety and security
- Staffing Responsibilities for Medicinal Surge and Extended Incidents
- Clinical Support Activities
Communication is a critical capability of emergency response in any health care setting; a capability is the ability to perform an action or generate an outcome. Under this area, the hospital Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) must include policies and procedures that describe specific features of communication including:
- How staff will be notified that emergency response procedures have been activated
- How the hospital will communicate information to staff and contractors during an emergency,
- How the hospital will notify external authorities during an emergency
- How the hospital will communicate with the community and media during an emergency
Another critical capability for emergency response per TJC is clinical support activities. Per TJC, the EOP should plan for how clinical services with continue to provide care, treatment, and services throughout a disaster. This includes staffing plans for surge events, Under this category, hospitals should also train staff in disaster triage, such as the SALT triage method. Hospitals should also have a plan to rapidly find out how many staff members, empty beds, OR, medical supplies and medical devices are available when disaster strikes.
Barbera, J.A., Macintyre A.G. Medical and Health Incident Management (MaHIM) System: a comprehensive functional system description for mass casualty medical and health incident management (2002). Available at: www.gwu.edu/~icdrm.
Drabek, Thomas E., The Professional Emergency Manager: Structures and Strategies for Success (1987), University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, pp. 58-59 and 236-243.