Explain ethics standards expected of government, business and finance homework help

Assignment: Explain ethics standards expected of government and contractor personnel,compare and contrast this to Program Management and the overview regarding ethical behaviors in Government Contracting.

STUDENT 1 (James):

Using the term “lowest bidder” can really ruffle some feather if you are employed within the Department of Defense (DoD). This week’s lesson and my subsequent research shows that not all lowest bidder contracts are of the best benefit to the government. And as anyone who works with the DoD this can’t be sustained for much longer.

Using the lowest-price, technically acceptable (LPTA) method is something the government needs to transfer most of its energy to. With the growing amount of available bidders on especially technical or computer based contracts the DoD has begun to use a more LPTA type of process when it comes to contracts. The more bidders the easier it is to find the best value for your money. These technologies become cheaper and cheaper by the day it seems sometimes and the government needs to be wary of what they are paying for.

“When selecting the LPTA criteria for procurements, the government determines before the release of the request for proposals that there is no additional value in trading off the non-cost factors versus cost.” (Lohfeld, 2012)

Setting minimum standards is the easy fix for most of the lowest bidder woes that the government faces in the contracting and acquisitions world. By setting these standards they can very easily weed through the possible large amounts of bids quite easily by making it known what the standards are for the proposed contracts. By using a mix of trade off and LPTA the government can save many man hours and funding to procure what it needs for when it needs it.


Lohfeld, B., (2012) Will low-price contracting make us all losers? Retrieved June 4, 2012, from https://washingtontechnology.com/articles/2012/06/…

STUDENT 2 (kathrine):

The DOD purchases are governed by the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). The FAR contains federal regulations that guide the procurement of goods and services by government agencies. Aspects of the acquisition process addressed by the FAR include planning, contract formation, and contract management.

STUDENT 2 (Katherine):

The FAR requires contracting officers to adhere to basic government policy, which governs ethical behavior when doing business with government. It outlines the requirements that the agency must meet and exceptions to such requirements. The FAR also describes guiding principles that seek to minimize cost, ensure quality, timeliness of the acquisitions’ delivery, and conducting the process with integrity, openness, and fairness. The regulation also identifies the roles of the acquisition team. The procurement process consists of three phases, namely the needs analysis and acquisition planning, contract formation, and contract administration (Schooner, 2010).

Contract formation is the process of developing requirements for procuring goods and services for a government agency. It can be defined as purchasing, leasing, or renting of goods and services. It involves obtaining supplies and services from nonfederal organizations. The process of contracting includes reviewing descriptions of services and supplies, solicitation and identifying supplies as well as the preparation and award of contracts.

Primary considerations include competition, methods of acquisition, contract types, and objections to the contract. The contract formation process involves many stages and ensuring that ethical judgements are made throughout the process is required. These requirements are defined before planning for the purchase of goods and services.

The final stage of the contract formation process is handling objections. Objections often stem from poor choices or not following proper procedures outlined by the FAR, which is the primary policy for contracting and procurement of government goods and services.

A link to the article I read is at http://scholarship.law.gwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi…