Read the case study to inform the assignment that follows.
Case Study: Ana
9th grade, Age 14
Ana’s mother, who became pregnant while in high school, is a single parent who completed her GED after Ana’s birth. Her mother works full-time. Ana’s parent never married and her biological father has had very limited contact with her. Ana has no siblings, but does have two male same-age cousins. Her mother wants Ana to finish school, as she wants her to be different from other family members.
Ana had delayed physical growth from second grade to eighth grade. Her mother took her to a physician during that time and no medical problems were reported. She has received regular medical check-ups with no noted medical concerns and no significant medical history.
Ana entered kindergarten at age 5 after one year of preschool as a model student in the developmental preschool program at the neighborhood school. Her daycare was provided by her maternal grandmother prior to starting kindergarten. Ana has attended schools in her grandmother’s neighborhood and has had no grade retentions.
Ana has missed an average of 10 days of school from grades K through 7. She had 50 days of absence in grade 8 and missed the first several weeks of grade 9. Ana has had no disciplinary referrals in any grades up to present time.
Grade 8 (last academic year)
Ana was absent at least 1 day per week starting mid-first quarter in the eighth grade. Her absences increased to two or more each week by winter break. By this time, a pattern of tardiness to school in the morning also began. Ana’s mother reported to the guidance counselor, “She’s refusing to get up in the mornings…lags in getting dressed…complains of tiredness and lethargy.” Ana then arranged to stay in the guidance office to complete work independently, two hours per day in the afternoon.
Soon she was absent as many days as she attended and by April, Ana rarely attended school at all.
Grade 9 (current academic year)
Ana’s physical growth seems to have stopped. At 5’1”, Ana is petite and smaller than most of her peers. She attended the first two days of classes, and then did not attend again for two weeks. She is interested in playing high school sports. She has trouble making friends and keeping connections with peers, but does like teachers and converses easily with them. She has no behavior problems or referrals. She does have trouble completing homework and keeping up with notes in classes and has failing grades in several classes.
Testing and Evaluation
Ana was given both verbal (WISC) and non-verbal (UNIT) IQ testing. Both tests placed her in the average intelligence range with an IQ of 105.
Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement
Please see attachment.
Classroom Teacher Input
Ana’s English teacher reports that Ana is able to write complete sentences, but is unable to complete a paragraph that follows the topic sentence. She often spells words incorrectly on her final draft. Additionally, she has difficulty sounding out words, which affects her reading fluency and her reading comprehension. Currently, Ana can independently read a seventh grade text with 80% comprehension. According to a teacher given reading inventory, Ana reads 40WPM correctly at a seventh grade level.
Interventions Prior to Special Education Referral
- Attendance secretary makes daily calls to home
- 1-to-1 sessions with guidance counselor
- Building consultation team
- Schedule changes
- Truancy petition to Juvenile Court Intake
- Small group instruction for reading
- Small group instruction for writing
- Extended time to complete writing tasks
Reason for Referral
Ana has an escalating pattern of absenteeism, decreasing socialization with peers at school and in the community, has failing grades, and very low self-acceptance/self-concept.
– Ana spontaneously smiles and converses with him; says she is comfortable in the guidance office; says she wants to be in school to please her mom and to participate in sports; tells the guidance counselor she likes him.
– She does not insist Ana go to school or leave the house if she does not want to.
– Says she thinks she is a “freak” – tiny, odd looking, biracial
– Says other kids make fun of her because she is so small
– She tears up when she talks about herself; voice quivers
– She acknowledges adults (smiles, “thank you”, responds to questions)
– Says she likes adults, would rather talk with adults than peers
– Does ask questions, initiates comments with adults
– Has a good vocabulary and speaks fluently
– Says she wants to make her mother happy and proud of her, but does not think she can
– Says she likes sports, but is “too small” to play them
– Says she is “close” to mother and grandmother
Ana has had no law enforcement involvement and no court appearances. She has had no formal placements out of home and does not spend time with friends or participate with church or youth groups.
Part 1: Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP)
Using the Ana Case Study information, write a 400-500-word Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP).
Your PLAAFP should include:
- Student strengths;
- Performance in classes,
- Influences of language, culture, and family background;
- Strengths, preferences, and interests in nonacademic areas; and
- Any other relevant issues.
Part 2: Annual Goals
Write two measurable behavioral goals and two measurable academic goals for Ana. Goals should include:
- A specific, measureable skill/behavior to be achieved in this goal; and
- A specific measurement tool or assessment strategy
In addition, include a baseline for each goal that identifies the present level of the student related to the skill stated in the goal.
Part 3: Rationale
Provide a 375-500-word rationale that clearly discusses and defends how each annual goal makes sense based on the PLAAFP and also how each goal is measurable.