Sports Management

Q1. Refer to Reading #1 (M3R1). Hofstede argued that cultural differences manifest themselves in several ways. He used the layers of the onion metaphor to explain culture. Which of the following is the correct order from the core A to the outermost layer D?

  • A: Symbol; B: Heroes; C: Rituals; D: Values
  • A: Values; B: Rituals; C: Heroes; D: Symbols
  • A: Values; B: Symbols; C: Rituals; D: Heroes
  • A: Symbol; B: Value; C: Rituals; D: Heroes

Q2. The unit of analysis Hofstede uses to distinguish cultures is:

  • Ethnicity
  • Nations
  • Gender
  • Continents
  • Social Class

Q3. Refer to Reading #1 (M3R1).

Different cultural values may affect motives for consuming a product (e.g., Sony Walkman). Please explain what this means. Then discuss why it matters to understand cultural values of the group of people to which you market your product

Q4. Refer to Reading 1 (M3R1) page 176. What is operational culture and why is this an important concept to understand? Please discuss

Q5. Do you think marketing messages must always be congruent with and reflect the values (e.g., collectivism) of the cultural group the messages are targeted to? Or do you think we can promote new values (e.g., individualism) and possibly reshape the cultural values of the group somehow? Please discuss .

Q6. Assume that you try to develop American football in South Korea by promoting various facets of the NFL as a brand: teams, football celebrities, television contents, merchandise, etc. These activities may be, however, referring back to Hofstede’s the onion metaphor, only dealing with the outermost layer of the onion, failing to reach the core/heart of the culture. Do you agree? Please discuss .

Q7. Read M3R2 – Who do these upstarts think they are? – The codes for America in Other Culture.

According to the reading, the code for America in France is “SPACE traveler” and in Germany, it is
“John Wayne”. Why is it important to understand how America is perceived (American codes) in other cultures? Please explain .

Q8. Refer to Reading #3 (M3R3). What is the main idea the author tries to present by sharing her experience of working with Mr. Bo Chen, a Chinese culture expert? Please discuss

Q9. Please discuss the main difference between high- and low-context cultures and its practical implication(s)